Creating a Crust on Bread


Really good white bread has a central region that is light in color, soft in texture and low in density, which is called the "crumb," and this is surrounded by a narrow region that is dark in color, hard in texture and of high density, which is called the "crust" (see Figure 1). As bakers increase the range of possible bread types and wish to automate the production of their products it is necessary for them to understand the way in which the thickness, texture and other properties of the crust can be controlled. The aim of the workshop will be to create mathematical models that can give insight into the ways in which the crust in formed and hence how its development can be controlled.




Figure 1:  The crumb and crust of bread.


The following paper presents some typical data collected during the baking of bread. The paper is not intended to act as a outline for the mathematical modeling that will be done at the workshop, but is given for those students who would like to explore some of the literature available in the subject area and to inform them of the typical conditions that need to be modeled.




B. Zanoni, C. Peri and S. Pierucci, A study of the bread-baking process. I: A phenomenological model, J. Food Engineering, 19 (1993), pp. 389-398.